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我国古代锡矿勘探方法

责任编辑:巩义三久 发表时间:2016-06-19 16:18

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  《山海经·中次八经》曰:“龙山,上多寓木;其上多碧,其下多赤锡,其草多桃枝钩端。”寓木,郭璞注:“寄生也,一名宛童;见《尔雅》。”《尔 雅·释木》注:“寓木宛童,寄生树,一名茑。”《尔雅义疏·释木》解释的较为详细:“寓犹寄也。寄寓木上,故谓之茑。茑犹鸟也,其状宛宛童童,故曰宛童。 《诗》:‘茑与女萝’。传茑寄生也……陆机疏云:‘茑,一名寄生。叶似当庐,子如覆盆,子赤黑甜美’。《本草》云:‘桑上寄生。一名寄屑,一名寓木,一名 宛童’……”茑是落叶小乔木,茎攀缘树上,叶掌状分裂,略作心脏形,花淡绿微红,果实球形,味酸。由此可知,茑是一种能攀缘别的树木的寄生小灌木。关于 “碧”,《说文解字·玉部》:“碧,石之青美者。”中国地质事业开拓者章鸿钊先生曾说:“碧即石青,方书一称扁青,今通称蓝铜矿”,它常与孔雀石一起产于 铜锡矿床的氧化带中。“桃枝”,《尔雅·释草》曰:“桃枝,四寸有节”,郭璞注曰:“今桃枝节间相去多四寸”,袁珂校注:“桃枝,竹名。”晋人戴凯之《竹 谱》云:“桃枝竹,皮赤,编之滑劲可以为,《顾命篇》所谓篾席者也……余之所见桃枝竹节,短者不兼寸,长着或踰尺,豫章徧有之。”宋代范成大在《桂海虞衡 志》中曰:“桃枝竹多生石上,叶如小棕榈,人以大者为杖。”《本草纲目·木部》《竹》条云:“(桃枝竹)其叶或细或大,……其性或柔或劲,或滑或涩,涩者 可以错甲,谓之箆簩,滑着可以为席,谓之桃枝。”“钩端”,郭璞注:“钩端,桃枝属。”即钩端是桃枝竹的一种。实际上,桃枝钩端实是两种竹子。元李衎《竹 谱》:“钓丝竹……但节间横枝细弱柔和,垂下数尺,飘然摇曳,宛如钓丝,故名。又名摇枝竹,又名摇丝。……《山海经》所谓嚣水之北多钩端竹者疑即此种。” 戴凯之《续竹谱》曰:“蜀土有竹,状若垂钓,俗名钓丝竹也。”可见,桃枝钩端应是两种竹子的名称,即桃枝竹与钩端竹。这则材料的重点是寓木、绿石、桃枝 竹、钩端竹四者生于相同的自然环境中,它们与锡矿藏有着共生关系,故应将它们作为一个寻找锡矿藏的“整体指示物”看待,而不能仅仅依靠“绿石”,因为《山 海经》中载有许多“碧”,而唯有与寓木、桃枝竹、钩端竹共生时,才有“其下多赤锡”的现象。