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重选是锡矿最基础的采选和选矿工艺方法

责任编辑:admin 发表时间:2016-05-09 09:02
  由于各国的锡矿床类型、矿石性质不一,历史条件和发展情况不同,因此国外各国的锡选矿状况差别非常大。选矿方法有的非常简单,例如印尼锡岛-邦加岛当地的个体采矿者使用沿袭了几百年的木溜槽洗选锡粗精矿,有的则用最复杂的流程,例如美国和欧洲发达国家利用复杂的联合工艺流程,在选锡的同时综合回收各种有价金属。近年来由于科学技术的进步,使得国外锡选矿工艺都有了一定进展,各国的选矿水平都有提高。其中最值得重视的动向是各种联合流程的应用(包括选冶联合流程),重介质预选,浮选锡石,防止过粉碎,细泥选别,精矿加工,老尾矿再选,综合回收等的发展。

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  这些特点决定了锡选矿的工艺原则:方法以重力洗选为主,重、磁、浮、电等物理选矿方法以及焙烧、挥发、浸出等化学选矿方法结合;流程实行多段磨、选,早收早丢,强化预选、脱泥等作业;产品以锡为主,综合利用,既生产符合冶炼要求的高品位精矿,又要生产品位较低的其他锡产品;规模要因地制宜,大、中、小结合。

  由于锡矿石比重大,所以锡矿石选别的主要方法是重选,配合以浮选、磁选、静电选,以及焙烧、挥发、浸出等。锡选厂常用的重选方法就是重介质选矿,重介质选矿主要用于矿石预选,即粗精矿的选别。常用的重选设备有摇床、跳汰机、螺旋选矿机、离心选矿机、皮带溜槽等。当前摇床是锡选厂的主要设备,用于处理2-0.037mm的细粒锡石。摇床富集比高,既可选出高品位精矿,又可丢出最终尾矿。

  目前,送冶炼的锡精矿大部分是摇床选别产品。跳汰多用于选别粗粒和中等粒度的锡石;螺旋选矿机用于有效回收-0.074mm粒级的锡石;对于小于37μm的洗泥,主要用离心选矿机和皮带溜槽进行选别。浮选在锡矿选矿中的应用主要有以下三个方面:一是用于浮选分离、回收和脱出伴生的各种硫化矿物;二是在粗精矿精选中,分离并回收各种伴生矿物;三是浮选锡矿物,主要是从矿泥中浮选细粒锡石。磁选和静电选只要用于锡粗精矿的精选过程,分离并回收比重同锡石相近的各种伴生矿物。

  在我国,砂锡矿是目前锡矿的主要开采对象,约占总开采量的75%,其中大部分是残破积砂锡矿,其次是冲积砂锡矿和老尾矿。砂锡矿选矿青海快3有着悠久的历史,但在以前主要是土法选别,劳动强度大,指标低,易选冲积砂锡矿的回收率最高只有40%-45%,残破积砂锡矿的回收率仅有25%-30%,伴生有用金属未回收。随着我国锡选矿技术的发展,新设备和新技术不断出现,冲积砂锡矿从木溜槽粗选发展到螺旋选矿机粗选和跳汰机粗选;残破积砂锡矿从土选发展成阶段磨矿、阶段选别、泥砂分选、贫富分选的重选流程,而且目前还继续向重浮结合、重磁结合、选冶结合的联合流程发展。

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  目前,由于生产费用低,重选仍是锡矿泥工业生产的主要方法,而今后,锡矿泥的重选,也是一项长期重要的研究课题。在一般情况下,细粒锡石浮选有效回收的下限粒度要比重选细的多。但由于过多微细矿泥的存在,在浮选过程中吸附药剂多,易产生微泥覆盖膜或矿化泡沫被微泥所污染,从而增加药剂的消耗,降低选择性,对浮选过程引起不良的影响。故在过去,锡石浮选仅仅是作为重选的补充,处理重选不能回收或难以回收的细粒锡石。近年来,随着科学技术的进步,浮选新药剂的增多,过去存在的问题得到解决。

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  近些年来,锡选矿联合工艺发展迅速,主要体现在磁、电选在锡选矿中的应用逐步扩大;细粒锡石浮选的研究和广泛应用;选冶联合工艺的发展。锡原矿品位逐年降低,是目前锡资源的总趋势。目前对我国锡矿工业来说,易采易选的砂锡矿资源越来越少,原生锡矿占有主要地位。因此加强锡矿采矿和选矿工艺研究青海快3,寻找新的选矿工艺和方法,努力提高锡精矿品位和回收率,提高经济效益、降低生产成本是一项重要的任务。尤其是我国原生锡矿多为共、伴生矿,含有铅、锌、铜、锑、钨、秘、锢、稼、镐,及硫和砷等许多有用元素,加强综合利用研究,提高综合回收率具有重要的意义。